*Read Pdf à Out of the Mountains ⚸ eBook or Kindle ePUB free

*Read Pdf ⚟ Out of the Mountains à When Americans Think Of Modern Warfare, What Comes To Mind Is The US Army Skirmishing With Terrorists And Insurgents In The Mountains Of Afghanistan But The Face Of Global Conflict Is Ever Changing In Out Of The Mountains, David Kilcullen, One Of The World S Leading Experts On Current And Future Conflict, Offers A Groundbreaking Look At What May Happen After Today S Wars End This Is A Book About Future Conflicts And Future Cities, And About The Challenges And Opportunities That Four Powerful Megatrends Population, Urbanization, Coastal Settlement, And Connectedness Are Creating Across The Planet And It Is About What Cities, Communities And Businesses Can Do To Prepare For A Future In Which All Aspects Of Human Society Including, But Not Limited To, Conflict, Crime And Violence Are Changing At An Unprecedented Pace Kilcullen Argues That Conflict Is Increasingly Likely To Occur In Sprawling Coastal Cities, In Peri Urban Slum Settlements That Are Enveloping Many Regions Of The Middle East, Africa, Latin America And Asia, And In Highly Connected, Electronically Networked Settings He Suggests That Cities, Rather Than Countries, Are The Critical Unit Of Analysis For Future Conflict And That Resiliency, Not Stability, Will Be The Key Objective Ranging Across The Globe From Kingston To Mogadishu To Lagos To Benghazi To Mumbai He Offers A Unified Theory Of Competitive Control That Explains How Non State Armed Groups Such As Drug Cartels, Street Gangs, And Warlords Draw Their Strength From Local Populations, Providing Useful Ideas For Dealing With These Groups And With Diffuse Social Conflicts In General His Extensive Fieldwork On The Ground In A Series Of Urban Conflicts Suggests That There Will Be No Military Solution For Many Of The Struggles We Will Face In The Future We Will Need To Involve Local People Deeply To Address Problems That Neither Outsiders Nor Locals Alone Can Solve, Drawing On The Insight Only Locals Can Brin Anyone interested in the future of COIN operations and warfare in the near future should consider picking up a copy of this book It is incredibly interesting and highlights trends that will change how we view and practice warfare Dr Kilcullen s work never disappoints Broad study of some future trends in warfare Kilcullen considers that warfare against non state actors, whether terrorists or organized crime, will remain important, assuming the decline in interstate warfare continues However, the author takes note of demographic trends rapid population growth, urbanization, littoralization concentration of population growth along the coasts , and increasing technological connections The following chapters expand upon this theme Chapter 2 discusses the scale of these conflicts from the international through to the local level Chapter 3 is an intuitive discussion of the problems of COIN warfare, explained through the theory of competitive control Chapter 4 is a survey of cases in Libya, Tunisia, and Syria Chapter 5 sums it all up, and the appendix contains technical detail Kilcullen s approach combines theoretical readings e.g Kalyvas work on civil wars with some practical operational knowledge from his time in the Australian Army The result is an original and interesting book, and one which appreciates the complexity of its subject It would be needlessly difficult to focus on only one contributing factor in COIN or other warfare, and I am grateful to read a systematic approach to these issues. This is far than a book on tactics in the chaotic world we re in it s an analysis of strife and the social, urban and environmental trends that feed it and shape it The world is increasingly urbanized, and those urban areas are often usually coastal littoral , a word he uses often , dysfunctional, complex, connected electronically and filled with internal rivalries and flashpoints It s the kind of dystopia that authors like Martin van Creveld The Transformation of War and Robert Kaplan The Coming Anarchy warned of, 20 years ago David Kilcullen now shows us how it acts.The title is slightly misleading, as it s not simply about guerilla warfare but about modern conflict, which will be, as he shows, mostly urban, but involving populations, accessible technology and social organization like nothing before, and far removed from what Mao or Che Guevara knew.Kilcullen shows how urban society can produce combatants and govern neighborhoods gangs and groups like Shabab in Somalia are the most obvious, as he shows, but football fan clubs Ultras are also candidates, as are hacker groups and social networks Indeed, his concept of competitive control is clever, as governments, local gangs and social networks might have organization, a normative system of rewards and punishments, and communications that overlap in urban neighborhoods and even personnel These groups may claim turf and adherents but might have tenuous legitimacy or power, something an outside force say, a US Marine expeditionary force might not understand.His tactical examples from recent history are apt He shows how, for instance, Al Qaeda in Iraq AQI established dominion in Sunni neighborhoods, enforced its will, waged war on government and Shiite entities, but was eclipsed after 2006 due to a combination of a foreign troop surge and its own unpopularity among its hosts He shows how the Taliban in Afghanistan has adapted its control systems and governance to maintain a presence even during the occupation He shows how Shabab militias can adapt light vehicles and crew served weapons to a simple, but effective, form of mounted warfare He shows the interaction and conflict of competing power centers, as in the battle between the Shower Posse gang of Kingston and the Jamaican government two hostile authorities with definite and shifting areas of control in the country s own capital He even mentions an episode in San Francisco, where the Bay Area Rapid Transit authority sought to turn off wireless to forestall a demonstration, and learned that people, once connected, will resent any attempt to cut it off.He shows us how modern connectivity the Web, cell phones, social networks, satellite technology, and phenomena like Skype or Google Earth now reaches every part of this new environment It can mobilize demonstrators as in the Arab Spring and get help from relatives abroad, he shows, but it can also train unskilled soldiers and arrs in tactics and fabrication, as in Libya, or utilize iPhone, Skype and mapping software to direct its new firepower, and get their message out to domestic and world audiences He does, in short, explain the Arab Spring s events and functionality.He does show successful cases where local people overcame this chaos, but little of it involved military force or outsider control, but, rather, down to earth social interaction and a concerted, collective effort.This is a book that Western defense ministries and service academies had better read.Indispensible for anybody seeking to understand conflict, and not just military, in this time Anybody in urban planning, military science, economics, sociology, technology applications, and, just maybe, regional or national politics, would do well to study it. Out of the Mountains is a serious work of scholarship written by David Kilcullen a serious scholar of modern warfare It s not a topic that I would want to study in depth, but I m glad there are people out there who make it their lives work A full disclosure, I received this book through Goodreads First Reads program Kilcullen points out that we are becoming clustered in our coastal cities We use our technology to connect us in ways that our ancestors couldn t even dream Our clustering and our connectivity leads to new vulnerabilities that enemies can exploit Kilcullen identifies these problems and vulnerabilities He is not long on solutions, but that may be because there are few ways to solve these problems At least solutions that do not involve tossing away our smart phones, and moving away from the coasts I recommend this book heartily.