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Ma tante m a donn ce livre No l et c est l un des rares livres qui m a touch e au point de changer ma vie Avant de le lire, j aimais d j le bouddhisme et ses valeurs de paix, de partage et de respect de la nature Dans ce livre Matthieu Ricard explique pourquoi la g n rosit , aider les autres, respecter la terre etc pourquoi tout a est reli Ses propos font r fl chir et nous vont droit au coeur J ai par la suite achet ce livre pour plusieurs amis. Altruism would have been to make this book a lot shorter As with all self help, what matters is if it resonates Maybe this is the book you need now, but it didn t do it for me I felt it lost the forest for the trees Be nice OK Nuff said That doesn t really take 864 pages I don t think the central point requires all the scientifical and Buddhist stuff, etc. I won this in a Goodreads giveaway.There was a lot to get through in this book but everything was relevant We all have the capacity for altruism as shown in the research the author presents With effort we can improve society with attention and cultivation of this. There is a lot in this book, to like and or dislike if you are a devout meat eater, you may not wish to read this book It gives insight into trying to be a better person, for yourself, your family and the planet There are many hidden agendas that are brought to the forefront by companies, people, and the government It also shows how far money changes people and how truly consumable a society we have become but only because we have been taught Truly a read that makes one think. Great concept, but read like a textbook Would love the cliff notes version This book is only partly successful in that it successfully discusses how altruism can positively change an individual and by extension the world, but it never successfully explains how this would be globally effective in modern society with sociopaths, Ayn Rand devotees, etc My dear friend, Barbara Reynolds, who now lives in Petaluma, CA informed me in a handwritten letter that she d seen Matthieu Ricard on some talk show and was intrigued about his book, ALTRUISM It inspired me to order my own copy from.com I m glad I did.This book is almost like a text book about how to live a enriched and fulfilling life by being compassionate through love and sharing I loved the many lines and tips I received It took me a long time to read as I wanted to enrich myself slowly as if experiencing a worthwhile meditation I strongly recommend this book to anyone It s truly excellent YOU will get a lot of great advice from it while enriching yourself with a HAPPY life.Here are some of the many excerpts lines I was able to capture while reading Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness Martin Luther King Jr The Buddhist Vision Every human possesses and indestructible potential for goodness and enlightenment.Learning how to read or learning a musical instrument induces a restructuring in the brain at both the functional and structural levels This is also what happens when one trains in developing altruistic love and compassion Altruism implies the elimination of selfish desire and of egocentrism, as well as leading a life devoted to the well being of others Auguste Comte First they ignore you Then they laugh at you Then they fight you Finally, you WIN GhandhiAltruistic love is characterized by unconditional kindness toward ALL BEINGS and is apt to be expressed at any time in favor of every being in particular LOVE fears nothing and no one It cuts through the fear at is very root GhandiLack of LOVE, of meaning, of confidence in oneself, and the absence of a clear direction in their lives weigh so heavily that it sometimes leads them to self destruction These extreme actions are a cry of despair, a call for help, a way of self expression for those who do not know how to find happiness, or who have been prevented from doing so by the brutality of external conditions If we practice an eye for an eye, said Ghandi, and a tooth for a tooth, soon the whole world will be blind and toothless The Seventh Dalai Lama wrote in the 18th Century IF THERE IS A WAY TO FREE OURSELVES FROM SUFFERINGWE MUST USE EVERY MOMENT TO FIND IT.ONLY A FOOL WANTS TO GO ON SUFFERING,ISN T IS SAD TO KNOWINGLY IMBIBE POISON The word empathy refers to the ability to feel the other from within.Affective empathy occurs when we enter into resonance with the situation and feelings of another person, with the emotions that are shown by the person s facial expressions, gaze, tone of voice, body language, and behavior WAR is a monstrous lack of imagination Franz Kafka Do NOT do unto others as you would have them done unto you They may have different tastes George Bernard Shaw There are two kinds of pity One, the weak and sentimental kind, which is really no than the heart s impatience to be rid as quickly as possible of the painful emotion aroused by the sight of another s unhappiness and the other, the only kind that counts, the unsentimental but creative kind, which knows what it is about and is determined to hold out, in patience and forbearance, to the very limit of its strength and even beyond Stefan ZweigThe characteristics of the person who feels empathy will also have an influence If, for example, I am not subject to vertigo, I will have trouble entering into empathic resonance with a person who is prey to that distress, but that will not prevent me from being aware of the fact that the other needs help or comfort.COMPASSION is awareness of the other s situation, and is accompanied by the wish to relieve suffering and to procure the other s happiness.Love and Compassion are positive states of mind, which reinforce one s inner ability to confront others suffering and to care better for them If a child is hospitalized, the presence of a loving mother at his side who holds his hand and comforts him with tender words will no doubt do him good than the anxiety of a mother overwhelmed with empathic distress who, unable to bear the sight of her sick child, paces back and forth in the hallway Positive emotions like joy, contentment, gratitude, wonder, enthusiasm, inspiration, and love have an additional dimension that is not reducible to neutrality of mind They are a source of profound satisfaction This implies that in order to flourish in life one must foster the blossoming of positive emotions LOVE is the supreme emotion Barbara FredericksonDictionaries define love as the inclination of one person for another or as a strong affection for another arising out of kinship or personal ties The Eskimos had fifty two names for snow because it was important to them, there outhg to be as many for LOVE Margaret Atwood LOVE is a positive resonance that manifests when three events occur simultaneously the sharing of one or several positive emotions, a synchrony between the behavior and the physiological reactions of two people, and the intention to contribute to the other s well being, an intention that engenders mutual care Barbara FredericksonScientific data has shown how LOVE, or its absence, fundamentally changes our physiology and the regulation of a group of biochemical substances, substances that can even influence the way our genes are expressed in our cells This ensemble of complex interactions profoundly affects our physical health, our vitality, and our well being.Studies have now established that inhaling sprays of oxytocin made people confident, generous, cooperative, sensitive to others emotions, constructive in communications, and charitable in their judgments Oxytocin plays an important role in calming and connecting in contrast to the fight or flight reflex To survive and prosper, oxytocin was described by neurobiologists as the great facilitator of life Subjects who had practiced meditation felt love, involvement in their daily activities, serenity, joy, and other beneficial emotions When you re alone, thinking about those you love, reflecting on past loving connections, yearning for , or even when you re practicing loving kindness meditation or writing an impassioned love letter, you ARE NOT in the moment experiencing TRUE LOVE They are NOT yet shared, and so they lack the critical and undeniably physical ingredient of resonance Physical presence is key to love.ALL THE JOY THE WORLD CONTAINSHAS COME THROUGH WISHING HAPPINESS FOR OTHERS.ALL THE MISERY THE WORLD CONTAINSHAS COME THROUGH WANTING PLEASURE FOR ONESELF Shantideva, a 7th Century Indian Buddhist master in his work, THE PATH TOWARDS AWAKENING The true altruist is one who never hopes for a reward He responds to the needs of others out of his natural compassion Cause and effect are unfailing, so his actions to benefit others are sure to bear fruit but he never counts on it Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, Tibetan Master Harmful mental states always tend to distance us a little from that feeling of harmony with oneself French philosopher, Michel Terestchenko calls it fidelity to self I actually think that humans are instrinsically good You always have to see the good, the beautiful, in a person, never deny, always look for the greatness of people, without any distinction of religion, caste, or way of thinking Father Ceyrac Altruism can be thought of as heroic when It has the aim of helping someone else.It involves a major risk or sacrifice.It is not linked to a reward It is voluntary It is tempting, if the only tool you have is hammer, to treat everything as if it were a nail Abraham Malsow cautions We are selfish because the only thing we really want is to have pleasant experiences, to prolong them, and to avoid or curtail unpleasant experiences John Stuart Mill, English philosopher I didn t have a choice Margot, a woman who had taken considerable risks to protect Jews persecuted by the Nazis, explained it this way Suppose somebody drowns If you stop to think, Shall I Shall I not Eeny, meeny, miney, mo You can t do that You either help or you don t You don t walk away You don t walk away from somebody who needs real help The Dalai Lama often says that love is natural than hatred since from birth to death we all need, in welfare and others In general, he adds, we feel good when we show kindness to others, and bad when we harm others I always knew that deep down in every human heart, there is mercy and generosity No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate they can be taught to love, for love comes naturally to the human heart that its opposite Even in the grimmest times in prison when my comrades and I were pusched to our limits I would see a glimmer of humanity in one of the guards, perhaps just for a second, but it was enough to reassure me and keep me going HUMAN goodness is a flame that can be hidden but never extinguished NELSON MANDELLAAN OLD CHEROKEE GIVING ADVICE TO HIS GRANDSON A fight is going on inside me, he said to the boy It is a terrible fight between two wolves One is EVIL he is hatred, anger, greed, envy, arrogance, grudge, resentment, miserliness, and cowardliness The other is GOOD he is happiness, joy, serenity, love, kindness, compassion, hope, humility, generosity, truthfulness and confidence They are also fighting inside you and inside every other person, too THE CHILD thought about it for a minute and then asked his grandfather, Which wolf will win The old Cherokee simply replied, The one you feed KIN SELECTION All those who are genetically related In fact, the sister of a given individual has an average of 50% of genes in common with him a first cousin 25% a niece 12.5% and so on We are survival machines robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes Richard DawkinsFour parental attitudes that are the most apt to favor altruistic behavior in children expressing affection acting in an altruistic way oneself, thereby serving as an example making children aware of the impact of their actions on others providing children with the opportunity to be useful to others IF you teach me something, I ll forget it if you show me something, I might remember it if you make me do something, I will put it into practice CONFUCIUSThe love and tenderness that children receive in early childhood profoundly influence the rest of their lives.Kindness is one of the most powerful determinants of a feeling of accomplishment and contentment.Defining BENEVOLENCE It s neither genius, nor glory, nor love that measures the loftiness of the human soul it s benevolence Henri LacordaireScientific research in the field of neuroplasticity shows that any form of training leads to a reconfiguring in the brain, on both the functional and structural levels Society and its institutions influence and condition individuals As this interaction continues over the course of generations, culture and individuals mutually shape each other We all share the same human nature, feel the same emotions of joy and sadness, benevolence or anger, and are all trying to avoid suffering Thus as human beings we are basically the same The Dalai LamaNeuroplasticity is a term that takes into account the fact that the brain changes constantly when an individual is exposed to new situations.In 1997, Fred Gage placed rats alone in an empty box for a month in which they had nothing to do except eat once a day Then he transferred them to a veritable DISNEYLAND for rats, with tunnels, wheels, pools, and various climbing elements, as well as other rats to keep them company The repercussions of this transfer on the brain were surprising In forty five days, the hippocampus area of the brain associated with learning new skills increased 15% in volume, even among the older rats, going on aerage from 270,000 neurons to 317,000 neurons Until one dies, new neurons continue to form in certain regions of the human brain up to 1000 per day This is occurring throughout life Six types of MEDITATION focused attention altruistic love combined with compassion open presence visualization of mental images fearlessness devotionResearch has shown that a few weeks of MEDITATION , at the rate of thirty minutes a day induced significant changes in cerebral activity, the immune system, one s quality of attention, and many other parameters.People have control of their emotions behave altruistically than those who do not A free, serene mind is likely to consider painful situations and the suffering of others from an altruistic point of view than a mind constantly disturbed by internal conflicts and preoccupied with its own reactions fear, anxiety, anger, etcTo MEDITATE on altruistic love, you should start by realizing that deep down you want to avoid suffering, and you wish for happiness This step is especially important for those who have a negative image of themselves and have suffered a lot, and who thing they are not meant to be happy Give rise to a welcoming, tolerant, kind attitude toward yourself decide that from now on you wish the best for yourself.Once you have recognized this aspiration, you then have to realize that it is shared by all beings Acknowledge our interdependence The shirt you wear, the glass you drink from, the house you live in all these are possible only thanks to the activity of countless others The simplest object in your everyday life is filled with the presence of others Reflect on the origin of the white sheet of paper on which you write Imagine the lumberjack who cut down the tree, the paper factory worker, the truck driver, the shopkeeper like any of us, they all have a life, with joys and sufferings, parents and friends They all share our humanity none of them wants to suffer This awareness should make us feel closer to all these beings, to feel empathy for them, to be concerned about their fate and to wish them well.It is easier to begin training in altruistic love by thinking about someone dear to you Imagine a smiling child coming up to us and looking at us happily, trustingly, full of innocence You pat the child s head, look at it tenderly, and take it in your arms, as you feel unconditional love, and kindness Let yourself be complete filled with his love, which wants nothing but the happiness of this child Remain for a few moments in full awareness of this love, without any other thoughts THEN extend these loving thoughts to people you know less well and to strangers To love is to find pleasure in the happiness of others Thus the habit of loving someone is nothing other than the benevolence by which we want the good of others, not for the profit that we gain from it, but because it is agreeable to us in itself LeibnizWhen you breathe OUT, think that your heart is a brilliant sphere of light from which rays of white light carry your happiness to all being, all over the world When you breathe IN, take their sufferings on yourself in the form of a dense, black cloud, which penetrates your heart and dissolves into white light without leaving a trace.A number of experiments showing that feeling connected to others increases our psychological well being and physical health, and diminishes the risk of depression The feeling of connection and belonging to a wider community also increases empathy and fosters behavior based on trust and cooperation.TAKING CONTROL OF ONE S LIFE Let s take the example of a sailor on his boat his freedom does not consist in letting his boat drift at the mercy of the winds and currents in that case, he wouldn t be navigating but drifting but in being master of this boat, taking the tiller, trimming his sails, and navigating in the direction he has chosen.FORGET about self esteem and concentrate on self control and self discipline Authentic self confidence is born from a feeling of balance with oneself, based on a peaceful strength that is not threatened by external circumstances or inner fears, a freedom beyond fascination with image and fear of losing it Christophe AndreGOD did not create you so you d be like everyone else.WHAT MAKES ME SO SPECIAL What is the difference between me and everyone else that justifies placing myself in this special category Am I intelligent Do I enjoy my life Are my accomplishments greater Do I have needs or abilities that are so different from the needs or abilities of others In short, what makes me so special Failing an answer, it turns out that Ethical Egoism is an arbitrary doctrine in the same way that racism is arbitrary And this, in addition to explaining why Ethical Egoism is unacceptable, also sheds some light on the question of why we should care for others We should care for the interest of other people for the same reason we care for our own interests for their needs and desires are comparable to our own James Rachels, American philosopherBasically, kindness and compassion for oneself comes down to asking oneself, What is really good for me The psychologist Heinz Kohut insisted on the idea that to feel that one belongs is one of the main aspirations of human beings One of the major causes for mental health problems is the feeling of being cut off from others To reinforce the feeling of being connected to the world and to all beings, Paul Gilbert suggests to his patients visualizations like this I would like you to IMAGINE a sea in front of you that is a beautiful blue, is warm and calm, lapping on a sandy shore Imagine that you are standing just in the water with the water lapping gently at your feet Now as you look out over the sea to the horizon imagine that this sea has been here for millions of years, was a source of life It has seen many things in the history of life and knows many things Now imagine the sea has complete acceptance for you, that it knows of your struggles and pain Allow yourself to feel connected to the sea, its power and wisdom in complete acceptance of you Once one has established a better relationship with oneself, it becomes easier to feel kindness and compassion for others.Research on forgiveness in particular has shown that an important stage in the process of forgiveness consisted of replacing anger with empathy Empath is a vital component of our humanity Without it, we have difficulty giving meaning to our existence, connecting to others, and finding emotional balance We can also drift toward indifference, coldness, and cruelty.Violence is often used by humans and animals to obtain food, reproduce, defend themselves, conquer or protect a territory, or assert one s authority or hierarchical rank People don t change because of a magic touch They grow Wilbert Rideau You have to do it on your own I don t know of any powerful way to change people than education Wilbert RideauAfter two decades of studies on the influence of television, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated that TV viewers who constantly watch negative actions show an increased tendency to act in the same way, and that the one watches television, the inclined one is to thing that people are selfish and would deceive us at the first opportunity.and there is MUCH MORE but I have no characters left. A looooooooooooooong read, but full of fine gems and things to discuss, debate, and consider. (READ EPUB) ⚡ Altruism õ The Author Of The International Bestseller Happiness Makes A Passionate Case For Altruism And Why We Need It Now Than EverIn Happiness, Matthieu Ricard Demonstrated That True Happiness Is Not Tied To Fleeting Moments Or Sensations, But Is An Enduring State Of Soul Rooted In Mindfulness And Compassion For Others Now He Turns His Lens From The Personal To The Global, With A Rousing Argument That Altruism Genuine Concern For The Well Being Of Others Could Be The Saving Grace Of The St Century It Is, He Believes, The Vital Thread That Can Answer The Main Challenges Of Our Time The Economy In The Short Term, Life Satisfaction In The Mid Term, And Environment In The Long Term Ricard S Message Has Been Taken Up By Major Economists And Thinkers, Including Dennis Snower, Amartya Sen, Joseph Stiglitz, And George SorosMatthieu Ricard Makes A Robust And Passionate Case For Cultivating Altruistic Love And Compassion As The Best Means For Simultaneously Benefitting Ourselves And Our Society It S A Fresh Outlook On An Ardent Struggle And One That Just Might Make The World A Better Place Ricard M 2013 29 45 Altruism The Power of Compassion to Change Yourself and the WorldIntroduction The Force of Example The Challenges of Today The Necessity for AltruismPart I What Is Altruism 01 The Nature of Altruism Some Definitions Action Alone Does Not Define Altruism It Is Motivation That Colors Our Actions The Importance of Valuing the Other s Welfare Altruism Does Not Require Sacrifice Temporary Mental States and Lasting Dispositions02 Extending Altruism Altruistic Love, Compassion, and Empathy The Importance of Lucidity Rejoicing in the Happiness of Others and Cultivating Impartiality Expanding One s Understanding of Others Needs From Biological Altruism to Extended Altruism Emotional and Cognitive Aspects of Altruism and Compassion Love and Compassion Based on Discernment Adopting the Attitude of the Physician Altruism Is Neither a Reward Nor a Moral Judgment Altruism Is Neither a Reward Nor a Moral Judgment The Possibility of Bringing an End to the Suffering of Beings Reinforces Altruism03 What Is Empathy Entering into Resonance with the Other Convergent and Divergent Resonances Empathy and Sympathy Is It Necessary to Feel What Others Feel in Order to Show Altruism for Them Putting Oneself in the Other s Place The Various Forms of Empathy The Point of View of the Human Sciences Pity and Compassion The Point of View of the Neurosciences Emotional Contagion, Empathy, and Compassion The Benefits of Empathy What Mental State Leads to Altruism 04 From Empathy to Compassion in a Neuroscience Laboratory Only Empathy Gets Fatigued, Not Compassion The Meditator s Point of View Imbuing Empathy with Compassion05 Love, Supreme Emotion The Biology of Love When Two Brains Become Attuned to Each Other Oxytocin and Social Interactions Calming Down and Opening Up to Others The Role of the Vagus Nerve Cultivating Love on a Daily Basis Love and Altruism Temporary Emotion and Enduring Disposition06 The Accomplishment of a Twofold Benefit, Our Own and Others Is an Action Selfish If One Benefits from It Everyone Loses or Everyone Gains Is Altruism Intrinsically Linked to Our Well Being 07 Self Interested Altruism and Generalized Reciprocity Self Interested Altruism and the Realization of the Common Good Long Term Reciprocity Toward a Generalized Reciprocity 08 Selfless Altruism Unselfishness Evaluated in the Laboratory The Simplest Explanation Ridding Ourselves of Cynicism09 The Banality of Good The Omnipresence of Voluntary Work Contentment at Every Instant The Incredible Story of Joynal Abedin The Emergence of NGOs Myths about Panic, Selfish Reactions, and Powerless Resignation10 Altruistic Heroism Heroism and Altruism The Story of Lucille11 Unconditional Altruism The Story of Irene Who Are the Rescuers United in Altruism A Vision of the World We All Belong to the Same Family 12 Beyond Imitations, True Altruism An Experimental Investigation An Example Altruism Put to the Test of Experimental Investigation Studying Altruism on a Daily Basis Helping Others in Order to Relieve Our Own Distress Experimentation in the Laboratory Helping Others in Order to Avoid Punishment Guilt Feelings Helping Others in Order to Avoid Disapproval The Calculated Expectation of Compensation Helping in the Hope of a Reward The Experimental Test13 The Philosophical Arguments Against Universal Selfishness The Theory of Universal Selfishness Evades Every Fact Based Refutation Do We Do Good to Others Because It Does Us Good Is Wishing for One s Own Well Being Incompatible with Altruism Does Acting According to Our Own Will and Desire Make All Our Actions Selfish You Had No Choice If Altruism Did Not Exist, What Feelings Would We Have for Other People Universal Selfishness Is Incompatible with the Existence of Morality Escaping Defeatism and Choosing Altruism Is Kindness More Natural than Hatred Nurturing the Potential for Goodness Present in Every Human BeingPart II The Emergence of Altruism14 Altruism in Theories of Evolution Revolutionary Insights into the Evolution of Life Charles Darwin From the Appearance of Life to the Emergence of Cooperation and Altruism Cooperation vs Competition Is Altruism Compatible with the Struggle for Life What Kind of Altruism Is Being Discussed Favoring Those Who Share Our Genes The Odyssey of George Price The Reciprocity of Beneficial Behavior Selfish Genes A Return to Sources The Notion of a Group from the Point of View of Evolution Can Altruism Be Propagated 15 Maternal Love, Foundation for Extended Altruism Mothers in Large Numbers What about Fathers in All This Does the Faculty of Empathy Risk Diminishing Among Humans 16 The Evolution of Cultures Teaching, Accumulating, Imitating, Evolving Faster than Genes Anxious Shepherds and Peaceful Farmers Cultural Differences Are Not Genetic The Mechanisms of the Evolution of Cultures Toward a More Altruistic Culture17 Altruistic Behavior Among Animals Without Denying Violence Benevolent Behavior Mutual Aid Friendship The Joy of Reunion, the Sadness of Separation The Targeted Empathy of the Great Apes Gratitude Multiple Facets of the Empathy of Elephants Altruistic Behavior Among Dolphins and Other Cetaceans Mutual Aid Among Animals of Different Species Consolation The Expression of Mourning The Phenomenon of Adoption The Transmission of Social Cultures Knowing What Others Are Thinking, or the Theory of Mind A Clever Dolphin A Bonobo That Tries to Help a Bird Fly Do You Need an Idea of Self to Have an Idea of the Other How Far Do Proofs Go Anthropomorphism or Anthropocentrism 18 Altruism Among Children From Birth to the Age of Twelve Months Babies Prefer Friendly People From One to Two Years From Two to Five Years A Series of Revealing Experiments Praise and Criticism The Tendency to Help Others Is Innate When Social Norms Temper Spontaneous Altruism Moral Sense and Moral Judgments After the Age of Five The Emergence and Regression of Aggressiveness During Childhood A Realization of the Interdependence of All Things Authoritarian Assertion of Power, Withdrawal of Affection, and Induction Regret and Guilt Four Essential Attitudes The Tragic Consequences of Privation of Affection Loving, Facilitating, Supporting19 Prosocial Behavior Are We Generally Inclined to Help Others The Bystander Effect The Determinants of Civic Courage City and Country Individualists and Collectivists Men and Women Mood and Circumstance Personal Values The Effects of Empathy Empathy Facilitates Difficult Negotiations Effect of Prosocial Behavior on Well BeingPart III Cultivating Altruism20 Can We Change Neuronal Plasticity The Importance of Epigenetic Factors Different Beings Giving Individual Transformation the Credit It Deserves21 Training the Mind What the Cognitive Sciences Have to Say The Long Term Effects of Meditation Meditators in the Lab A Dozen Years of Experimentation Attention Can Be Improved Cultivating Altruistic Love and Compassion Meditation on Open Presence The Brain Is Structurally Modified by Meditation Detecting Facial Expressions Might Be Linked to Our Degree of Empathy Altruistic Behavior and Emotional Control The Benefits of Short Term Training on Prosocial Behavior Effects of Altruistic Love Meditation on Social Connections Lessening of Unpleasant Aspects of Physical Pain Meditation on Altruism, Compassion, and Focused Attention Can Slow Down the Aging of Cells Practical Applications of these Studies22 How to Cultivate Altruism Meditations on Altruistic Love, Compassion, Joy, and Impartiality Preparing for Meditation Motivation Stabilizing the Mind Meditation on Altruistic Love Meditate First on a Loved One Extending to Strangers and Enemies Compassion Rejoicing, Celebration, and Gratitude Impartiality How to Combine these Four Meditations Exchanging Our Happiness for the Suffering of OthersPart IV Contrary Forces23 Egocentrism and Crystallization of the Ego The Formation of Me and the Crystallization of the Ego The Various Facets of Our Identity In Search of the Ego The Fragile Faces of Identity What to Do with the Ego The Benevolent Strength of Non Ego Reducing Prejudice between Groups The Robbers Cave Experiment Resolution of Conflicts24 The Spread of Individualism and Narcissism The Two Faces of Individualism True Freedom The Downward Spiral of Individualism The Deforming Mirror of Narcissism Everyone Is Above Average Narcissism Goes Against Altruism The Fall of Narcissus The Madness of Greatness The Epidemic of Narcissism Self Adoration Good and Bad Self Esteem The Solitude of Hyperconnectivity God Did Not Create You So You d Be Like Everyone Else The Virtues of Humility25 The Champions of Selfishness The Ayn Rand Phenomenon Reducing the Role of the Government to a Strict Minimum Ayn Rand s Moral and Intellectual Mistakes Freud and His Successors Altruism Is Supposedly an Unhealthy Compensation for Our Desire to Harm Enhancing Selfishness Freeing the Emotions or Freeing Yourself from Emotions Freud s Successors Have Continued to Evolve in the Sphere of Egocentrism26 Having Hatred or Compassion for Yourself Can You Truly Hate Yourself The Feeling of Having No Value Violence Directed Against Yourself Establishing a Warm Relationship with Yourself Understanding We Are Part of Humanity Practicing Mindfulness Self Esteem and Kindness Toward Oneself Compassion for Oneself, Compassion for Others27 The Shortfall of Empathy Burnout Emotional Exhaustion Regenerating Compassion in Medical Practice The Factors That Contribute to Burnout Empathic Exhaustion Linked to an Unfavorable Environment Men and Women Faced with Burnout Can Compassion Be Pathological Narcissism and Personality Disorders Linked with a Lack of Empathy Full Head, Empty Heart The Case of Psychopaths Psychopathy Induced by Practicing Violence Psychopaths in Suits The Brain of Psychopaths Treatment of Psychopaths Regenerating Empathy, Amplifying Kindness28 At the Origin of Violence Devaluing the Other Lack of Empathy Hatred and Animosity The Thirst for Revenge The Therapist s Point of View Wilbert Rideau Spared to Do Good Violence and Narcissism The Ego Threatened The Imprudence of Megalomaniacs The Mechanisms of Violence The Fiction of Absolute Evil The Pleasure of Doing Evil Violence as an Easy Solution Respect for Authority The False Prison at Stanford, or the Power of Situations Violence Born from Thirst for Wealth and Power Ideological Dogmatism Doing Evil in the Name of Good Does a Violent Instinct Exist The Perspective of the Neurosciences on Violence The Influence of the Media The Case of Video Games Beneficial Video Games The Sight of Weapons Women and Children, First Victims of Violence Moral Violence How to Reduce Violence The Courage of Nonviolence29 The Natural Repugnance to Kill Avoiding Shooting at the Other Fear of Dying Is Less Traumatic than the Compulsion to Kill Creating a Distance Avoidance Rituals Who Kills Stifling Empathy by Conditioning Learning to Kill Before the Age of Twenty Nothing but Victims What Lessons Can We Draw from This The Point of View of Religions30 Dehumanizing the Other Massacres and Genocides The De Individualization of the Actors as Well as the Victims Disgust Desensitization The Case of the 101st Battalion Moral Compartmentalization Cognitive Dissonance and Rationalization The Cohesion of the Group Authority and Situations The Establishment of a System Beyond Human Conditions A Deadly Snowball Effect Moral Strength Refusing to Collude with the Oppressor Non Intervention in Response to the Gradual Intensification of Genocide Becoming Aware of the Reality of a Genocide Warning Signs of Genocides and Politicides The Responsibility to Protect31 Has War Always Existed Are We the Descendants of Killer Apes A Relatively Peaceful Social Life From Whom Do We Descend Violence Among Prehistoric Man Has War Always Existed The First Signs of War Violence in Primitive Societies Hurl the Spears, but Be Careful Not to Wound Anyone Neither Angels Nor Demons Putting Violence in Perspective32 The Decline of Violence The Decline of Individual Violence The Decline of Institutionalized Violence Rejection of Violence A Cultural Evolution The Decline of Wars and Conflicts Was the Twentieth Century the Bloodiest in History Acts of Terrorism Factors Responsible for the Decline of Violence The Existence of a Stable Government The Rise of Democracy Interdependence and Commerce Peace Missions and Membership in International Organizations War No Longer Arouses Admiration The Rise of Respect for Human Rights, for Women, for Children, and for Animal Rights The Decline of Religious Intolerance The Marginalization of Violence Education and Reading, Catalysts for Empathy The Increased Influence of Women It s Better to Restore Peace and Cure Wounds than to Avenge Affronts The Challenges Still to Be Overcome The Age of Reason33 The Instrumentalization of Animals A Moral Aberration The Extent of the Suffering We Inflict on Animals Profit Above Everything The Hypocrisy of Care A Hidden Reality A Global Enterprise Every Day, All Year Long Killing Humanely 34 Backfire Effects of the Meat Industry on Poverty, Environment, and Health The Meat of Wealthy Countries Is Costly to Poor Countries The Impact on Freshwater Reserves Industrial Breeding and Climate Change Animal Waste The Effects of Fishing Meat Consumption and Human Health The Good News35 Institutionalized Selfishness The Merchants of Doubt 100 Million Deaths in the Twentieth Century The History of Tobacco Any Solutions Denial of Climate Change The Pharmaceutical Industry A Challenge for Public Health A Distortion of Scientific Research Pharmaceutical Companies Completely Lack Transparency Regulators Aren t Doing their Duty The Cost of Research Is Greatly Inferior to That of Advertising Expenses Medical Visitors Unduly Influence Doctors Much Research Serves Only to Produce a Copy of What Already Exists Serious Ethical Mistakes Concerning Human Guinea Pigs Possible Solutions Monsanto, Extreme Example of Institutionalized Selfishness A Poisoned City PCBs Spread All Over the World Protecting Business, Saying Nothing A Weighty Condemnation, Soon Forgotten Agent Orange Roundup GMOs Monsanto Converts The Spread of GMOs Over Every Continent A Few VictoriesPart V Building a More Altruistic Society36 The Virtues of Cooperation The Advantages of Cooperation Cooperation within a Company, and Competition between Companies The Cooperative Movement Mutual Trust Solves the Problem of the Commons Cooperation and Altruistic Punishment Better than Punishment Reward and Appreciation In Praise of Fraternity Favorable Conditions for Cooperation37 An Enlightened Education Neutrality Leads Nowhere A Quiet Revolution A Spectacular Success Discovering Interdependence Educating the Heart and Mind Cooperative Learning The Benefits of Mentoring The Rights Respecting Schools Initiative Philosophy with Eight Year Old Children The Jigsaw Classroom Barefoot College, the Shepherds School, and the Children s Parliament A Teacher s Empathy A Baby in the Classroom Reconnecting with Nature Positive Education38 Fighting Inequality Economic Inequality on the Increase Almost Everywhere in the World The South American Exception The Price of Inequality How to Reduce Inequality39 Toward a Caring Economy Homo Economicus, Rational, Calculating, and Selfish The Downward Slide of the Free Market The Price of Everything, the Value of Nothing Safeguards for the Good of All The Beginning of the End of Exorbitant Bonuses The Swiss Lead the Way Uniting the Voice of Care with the Voice of Reason Extending Reciprocity Mondragon A Successful Alternative Toward a Positive Caring Economy Muhammad Yunus, or How Not to Underestimate Humankind The Rise of Fair Trade Ethical Funds Creating a Positive Economy Stock Exchange Official Development Aid Giving Back to Society Philanthropy on a Global Level The Invisible Philanthropist The Coming of Global Solidarity The Rise of Free Access to Knowledge The Teacher with the World s Biggest Class Innovation in the Service of the Common Good The Man Who Changed Bangladesh s Landscape40 Voluntary, Joyous Simplicity What Can We Hope for from Consumerism Consumption and Altruism Renting and Repairing Instead of Buying Money Doesn t Make You Happy Unless You Give It Away Simplify, Simplify, Simplify The President of Simplicity An Appeal for Simplicity41 Altruism for the Sake of Future Generations The Holocene An Exceptional Period for Human Prosperity We Have Everything to Gain by Preserving This Favorable Situation The Planetary Boundaries within Which Humanity Can Continue to Prosper The Future s Not So Bad for Now The Scale of the Challenge An Immense Violation of Human Rights Do Future Beings Have Rights How Are Our Contemporaries Reacting Ecological Footprint Close Collaboration between Science and Government Is Essential Feeding 9 Billion Humans The Injustice of Environmental Change A Revealing Example of Interdependence Pessimism Is a Waste of Time Solutions Exist The Crucial Hydrocarbon Alternative A Complete Transition Toward Renewable Energy Supplying Energy to Poor Countries Sensible Water Management Food for All Without Destroying the Biosphere A Real Green Revolution Revitalizing the Soil Establishing a Circular Economy by Recycling All Rare Metals An Intelligent Network for Sharing Renewable Energy Some Encouraging Signs Green Cities Set the Example Taking Action and Not Looking for Excuses for Doing Nothing A Question of Common Sense42 Sustainable Harmony Neither Growth Nor Decline A Balanced Prosperity The Weaknesses of the Present Economic Model Toward New Criteria of Prosperity Three Essential Indicators Balanced Prosperity, Contentment with Life, Quality of the Environment National Accounts That Recognize the Value of Natural and Human Capital An Ecology of Well Being Mutuality Integrating Economic, Social, and Natural Capital within a Company43 Local Commitment, Global Responsibility What Government for the World Transforming Ourselves in Order to Transform the World Community Engagement The NGO Revolution Attaching Greater Importance to Civil Society Integrating Our Understanding of Interdependence Globalization for Better and for Worse Universality of Rights, Responsibility of Each Individual An Informed Democracy and an Accountable Meritocracy Toward a Global Federation Conclusion Daring Altruism